INTERVIEW SHORT QUESTION ANSWERS-LOADS

 

 

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INTERVIEW SHORT QUESTION

ANSWERS-LOADS

Loads are forces. There are different

sources of forces. Weight, wind and

thermal are some examples. These

act differently. There are gradually,

suddenly applied and impact loads.

All these have different affects.

1. What are various types of forces?

Two types of forces: Constant magnitude and variable magnitude.

Examples of Constant magnitude forces: Weight force acting vertically downwards

Examples of variable magnitude forces

(i) Pressure force

(ii) Wind force

(iii) Inertia force

(iv) Centrifugal force

(v)Thermal force

(vi) Seismic force

(vii) Frictional force, Snow load

2. What is a gradually applied load?

When a load is applied in installments i.e. load of 100 N to be applied. First a load of 5 N then 10 N, 15 N 20 N —————–100 N is applied. Mostly it is used while tests are performed on materials to determine their strengths.

3 What is a suddenly applied load?

When the total force is applied in one installment i.e. force of 100 N is applied. It causes 2 times the stress as compared to when the same load is applied gradually. For example a person when sits on a chair.

4. What is an impact load?

Impact load is moving load. The moving body striking another body creates impact load. It causes many times stress when if the same load is applied gradually. Example: force applied in an accident is an impact load, hammering is another example of impact load.

(i) Beating with a stick

(ii) kicking a football

(iii) striking a ball in cricket

(iv) firing a bullet on a person

(v) jumping

It is used to find the toughness (strain energy up to the point of fracture) of a material. In actual practice most of the loads are a combination of suddenly and impact loads.

5.What is resilience? What is its symbol? What are its units?

Strain energy per unit volume is resilience. Its symbol is ‘u’. Its units are J/mm3.

Total Strain Energy =U

Total strain energy U = Gradually applied Load x Extension/2

    = P δL / 2

    =σ A (P L/AE)/2

     = σ  (P/A) AL/2E = σ σ AL / 2E

      = (σ2/ 2E) x Volume

    u =U / V = σ2/ 2E

        = σ2/2E

Resilience is an elastic property. It applies only within elastic limits.