EMISSONS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES CLASS NOTES

EMISSONS INTERNAL COMBUSTION

ENGINES CLASS NOTES

Emissions from internal combustion engines are

harmful. Reduce these to a minimum. Their total

elimination is not possible.

DEFINITION

Emission of an IC engine is hot mixture of gases coming out of the engine and going to the atmosphere.

CONSTITUENTS

These emissions may contain

(i) Carbon dioxide (Co2)

(ii) Carbon monoxide (Co)

(iii) Un-burnt hydrocarbons (UBHC)

(iv) Oxides of nitrogen (Nox)

(v) Oxides of Sulphur

(vi) Aldehyde

(vii) Lead

(viii) Water vapors

(ix) Smoke

(x) Particulate matter (PM)

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF EMISSIONS

  1. These emissions create pollution of the atmosphere.

  2. These emissions are very harmful to all types of life like humans, plants, birds and insects.

  3. Aldehyde, phenol, ether and oxides of nitrogen react with atmospheric air in the presence of sunlight. These produce smog causing irritation in eyes and respiratory problems like Bronchitis and Asthma. Smog also reduces visibility & it becomes danger in driving.

  4. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid which increases corrosion and causes irritation to eyes.

  5. Co and Nox lowers hemoglobin’s in blood and increases respiratory troubles.

  6. Lead causes skin cancers.

LIMITING STANDARD FOR EMISSIONS

 European standards dictate limiting the pollutants in exhaust emissions. These improve air quality and health. These limits are in the form of Euro I, Euro-II, Euro-III, Euro-IV, Euro-V, and Euro- VI. Euro VI defines latest limits reproduced below:

FOR PETROL

  1. CO- 1 g/km

  2. HC 0.110 g/km

  3. Nox – 0.06 g/km

  4. PM 0.005 g/km

FOR DIESEL

  1. CO- 0.50 g/km

  2. (HC+ NOx) 0.17 g/km

  3. Nox – 0.08 g/km

  4. PM 0.006 g/km

CONTROLLING STEPS FOR EMISSIONS

Achieve emission control by modifying the engine design. It  involves control of compression ratio, combustion chamber, valve timings, changes in engine cooling system & changes in fuel supply system.  Ignition-injection controls and treat the exhaust gases by using catalytic converters.

STEPS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS

  1. Use of unleaded petrol 

  2. Keep the engine properly tuned. There should be no misfiring.

  3. Do not keep the engine idling for longer periods.

  4. Never run the engine with choke in pulled condition.

  5. Do not turn off ignition key as come down a hill.

 

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