## STATES OF MATTER AND PHASE CHANGE PROCESSES

SSTATES OF MATTER AND PHASE CHANGE PROCESSES  Differentiate between the three states of matter Solids  Liquids Gases Have fixed volume and fixed shape Have fixed volume But have variable shape Variable volume And variable shape What are the various types of phase changes? Five types of phase changes Phase change    Name of Process Practical Application…

## THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES CLASS NOTES FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES CLASS NOTES FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING A thermodynamic cycle consists of thermodynamic processes in series. As a result, system returns to its initial starting point. (a)    POWER CYCLES (HEAT ENGINE CYCLES) WITH EXTERNAL COMBUSTION Cycle  1-2 process (compression) Process 2—3 (heat addition)  3—4 process (Expansion) Process 4—1 (Heat rejection) Remarks CARNOT CYCLE ISENTROPIC ISOTHERMAL…

## NON FLOW AND FLOW WORK

NON FLOW AND FLOW WORK CLASS NOTES FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING NON FLOW WORK (i)                 Work input to a compressor during compression process ( from the start of compression to end of compression) (ii)               Work obtained from a turbine during expansion only (During start of expansion to the end of expansion) Mathematical form of non-flow work…

## BOUNDARY LAYER SEPARATION

BOUNDARY LAYER SEPARATION When fluid flows past a body (cylinder or an airplane), fluid is accelerated due to pressure drop and ∂p/∂x is negative. Pressure decreases as distance x increases. When ∂p/∂x becomes zero, velocity decreases and separation of flow occurs and back flow is just to start. At the point of separation, the following…

## ISENTROPIC AND ADIABATIC PROCESSES CLASS NOTES

ISENTROPIC AND ADIABATIC PROCESSES CLASS NOTES Isentropic process has constant entropy. There is no loss. It is a theoretical process. There is an adiabatic process which is irreversible. There is heat addition. There is internal and external losses. ISEN-TROPIC PROCESS Heat exchange is zero. dq=0, Tds=0 s = entropy =  constant There is no internal friction…

## THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES AND PROPERTIES CLASS NOTES

THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES AND PROPERTIES CLASS NOTES   Any thermodynamic system works on a closed repeatable cycle. Each cycle consists of four processes. In these processes, there is transfer of heat and work into the system or out of the system. Normally processes have one variable as constant. Adiabatic process in which there is no heat…

## HEAT, WORK AND STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION CLASS NOTES

HEAT, WORK AND STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION CLASS NOTES   COMPARISON BETWEEN HEAT AND WORK SIMILARITIES Sr No Heat Work 1 Form of energy Form of energy 2 Across a boundary Across a boundary 3 Cross the boundary whenever there is a change of state of a body Cross the boundary whenever there is a…