These equations are very helpful in doing the

analysis. It increase the deep understanding.

It increases knowledge and clarity.

  1. Bernoulli Equation

The equation comes from Newton’s law of motion. Assumptions used in deriving Bernoulli’s equation:
  1. Flow is steady
  2. In compressible flow
  3. Non-viscous flow (ideal fluid with zero viscosity)
  4. No losses and no energy exchanges
 Bernoulli’s equation states that “Total head of a flowing fluid is constant.  Total energy of a flowing fluid is constant. One head can change into another form”.

 Various Forms Of Heads in a Fluid Flow

Sr. No.

Type of Head

Type of Energy

Pressure head = p /ρg
pressure energy= p V
Kinetic head   = v 2/2 g
 Kinetic energy  = m v 2/2
Potential head =h
pressure energy = m g h
Piezometric head=Pressure head +Potential head=p/ρg+ h
 Bernoulli’s Equation is
p / ρg + v 2/2 g + h = Constant=Total head
p1 / ρ1g + v12/2g + h1 = p2 / ρ2g + v22/2g + h2

Energy Equation

Here the total head of a flowing fluid is not constant. There are always some losses or gains. It is because of friction, heat transfer, shaft work.
 Similarity Between Bernoulli’s Equation And Energy Equation
 Bernoulli equation and energy equation are derived directly from the first law of thermodynamics.
 Dissimilarity Between Bernoulli’s Equation And Energy Equation
The losses or gains are associated with the energy equation. There are no losses or gains in Bernoulli equation. Bernoulli equation is an ideal equation.  Energy equation is a real equation of fluid flow.
Bernoulli’s Equation has been derived assuming in-compressible flow. It is applicable
(i) to air or gas flow with Mach number(M ≤ 0.3).
(ii)  No work is done by the gas or on the gas.
(iii)  No energy exchange with the surroundings

     3. Momentum equation

Momentum equation is for the kinetics of flow and considers the forces acting on the flowing fluid. It is based on Newton’s second law of motion to a control volume. It is based on the principle of conservation of linear momentum. This equation is obtains  resultant force on the control volume. It is equal to the net rate of momentum flux through the control surface.
  Momentum equation is a vector equation. It considers the forces and the velocities. Momentum equation gives the magnitude and direction of the impact force exerted on the control volume by its solid boundary.
 Forces in Momentum equation
  1. Surface forces (Coming from the surroundings)
  2. Impact force on the control surface which is in contact with a solid boundary (normally not known)
  3. Pressure force on the control surface
  4. Body forces or gravitational forces
Analysis procedure
  1. Select a control volume.
  2. Decide and draw coordinate-axis of the control volume.
  3. Calculate the total force which equal to the rate of change of momentum across the control volume
  4. Find the pressure force Fp=p x surface area on which pressure is acting
  5. Determine the body force FB = Weight of the control volume
 Applications Of The Bernoulli And Momentum Equations
  1. Pitot tube
  2. Orifice meter
  3. Venturimeter
  4. Nozzle
Differences between Bernoulli’s and energy equations
Sr. No
Bernoulli’s Equation
Energy Equation
For an in-compressible and non viscous fluid
Applicable to in-compressible and compressible fluids.
It is applicable to any real fluid
This equation does not account for heat and work interactions between two points
This equation accounts for heat and work interactions between two points
It is not applicable across a compressor or a turbine,
It is applicable across a compressor or a turbine,
Equation accounts only for potential energy, kinetic energy and pressure energy
Equation accounts for all types of energy encountered in the flow.
 applicable  to all liquids. It can apply to gases as long as Mach Number is < 0.3
It applies to all fluids under all conditions.

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